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Chapter 2. Extended Attributes

Table of Contents

Extended attributes are a way you can store more-or-less arbitrary information about a file or directory. This could be useful in remembering some summary details of a file’s contents or the kind of files stored in a directory. For example, for a photograph, extended attributes could be used to store information about the camera used, the camera’s settings when taking the photo or the subject matter. For data taken from a telescope, extended attributes might store the region of the sky, the time period when the data was taken and which frequency ranges or filters used when capturing the data. More generally, extended attributes may be used to store external references, such as the file’s reference within some data catalogue.

How metadata is stored

The information in extended attributes is stored as pairs of information: a name and a value. The extended attribute’s name describes what kind of information the attribute is storing while the extended attribute value holds the precise information for this file or directory. For example, a file may have an extended attribute named catalogue-id with a value that is some identifier (perhaps a number or a URL) within some external data catalogue; e.g., https://catalogue.example.org/file/14324.

The extended attribute names and values are fairly arbitrary. Both extended attribute names and values may be any valid UTF-8 string. Although dCache will store this information, it makes no attempt to understand or act on the supplied information. In particular, the extended attribute’s value may be formatted in whichever way is appropriate for the context. For example, the value could be a simple label, a space- or comma-separated list, a URI, a JSON object, etc.

For any file or directory, the stored extended attribute names must be unique. Two operations that refer to the same target (a file or directory) and the same extended attribute name are referring to the same extended attribute. Therefore, it is not possible to create two distinct extended attributes with the same name. If you want dCache to store a collection of similar values (e.g., a list of tags) then that should be stored as a single extended attribute with a value containing the multiple values that are encoded into a single extended attribute value. This could be as a space- or comma- separated list, as a JSON or YAML array, or in some other format.

Extended attributes are global and are not stored per user or per group: if one user assigns a file some extended attribute named foo (with value bar, say) then all users will see this extended attribute. This means that users of a specific extended attribute name must have a common understanding of this attribute’s semantics; for example, if a file has an extended attribute catalogue-id then all users that read this attribute must understand in which format the ID is held (an integer value, a URI, a JSON Object, …), the semantics of this value (identifies the file within the catalogue, or the identifier only catalogue with the file-specific identifer held in a separate extended attribute), within which catalogue the file is registered (if not stored explicitly), etc. The users of this attribute also need to coordinate how the attribute value is assigned.

Protocol support

Support for querying and updating extended attributes are available through various protocols supported by dCache. The extended attributes are consistent across multiple protocols: metadata stored through one protocol is both visible and modifiable through all protocols.

The NFS door supports RFC 8276, which describes an extension to NFSv4 that allows clients to query and modify extended attributes. The NFS chapter contains more details.

The frontend door provides roughly similar extended attribute functionality to the NFS protocol but using an HTTP REST API. The frontend chapter describes how to work with extended attributes through this API, with the discovering metadata section describing how to query currently assigned extended attributes and the managing extended attributes section describing how to create, modify or remove extended attributes.

Finally, the WebDAV door supports extended attributes by mapping them to WebDAV properties. This allows quering current extended attributes, assigning extended attributes, and removing existing extended attributes. The extended attributes section in the WebDAV chapter has more details on how this works.


Depending on the protocol used, clients may have more sophisticated options when assigning an extended attribute. Using the NFS or REST interfaces, a client can choose how an extended attribute is added or modified. In general, there are three modes when modifying a file’s extended attributes: CREATE, MODIFY or EITHER. In CREATE mode, dCache will accept an extended attribute assignment only if there is no existing extended attribute with the same name; if the named extended attribute already exists then the operation will fail. In MODIFY mode, dCache will accept an extended attribute assignment only if there is already an extended attribute with the same name. Finally, in EITHER mode the attribute is created if it does not already exist, or is updated if it already exists. The CREATE mode is useful for assigning identifiers that should not change; MODIFY is useful in certain circumstances for modifying optional information atomically; EITHER mode is perhaps the most often used, where information is always assigned.

Extended attributes may also be removed. This operation is a distinct from assigning an extended attribute a new value. Specifically, assigning an empty value to an existing extended attribute will not delete the extended attribute as an empty value is valid.


Extended attributes do not have separate authorisation information. Instead, a user is allowed to read, add, modify and remove extended attributes based on the corresponding file or directory permissions. If the user can read a file’s contents then that user can also read extended attributes. If the user can (in principle) modify a file’s contents then that user can modify that file’s set of extended attributes by creating new extended attribute, or by modifying or removing existing extended attribute. For directories, the ability to list a directory allows a user to read a directory’s extended attributes and the ability to create new content (files or directories) within a directory means that user is able to modify that directory’s set of extended attributes.